Lester Kissel Grant recipients to tackle ethical issues

first_imgFor the third year, several Harvard College students have been awarded Lester Kissel Grants in Practical Ethics to carry out summer projects on subjects ranging from the role of the International Criminal Court in The Hague, to the psychological and social consequences of the threat of deportation. The students will use the grants to conduct research in the United States or abroad, and to write reports, articles, or senior theses. Each grant supports living and research expenses up to $3,000.The recipients were selected by a committee under the auspices of the University-wide Edmond J. Safra Foundation Center for Ethics, which administers the grants.“This year’s Kissel Grant winners are exploring a number of moral frontiers, from rights to citizenship to the status of animals,” said Arthur Applbaum, acting director of the Ethics Center and professor of ethics and public policy at the Kennedy School of Government. “We are very pleased with both the quality and range of the normative research proposed by our undergraduates.”THE RECIPIENTS ARE AS FOLLOWSDaniel W. Asher, a senior social studies concentrator, will explore the ethics of U.S. immigration policy, asking whether the liberal tradition of political philosophy and American’s common moral intuitions can justify America’s current exclusionist policies. Drawing on the works of Rousseau, Jefferson, and Habermas, Asher will argue that a major change in U.S. policy is a moral necessity.Trevor Bakker, a sophomore social studies concentrator, will conduct research at the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands, on the ethical challenges faced by the court in its collection of evidence and decisions to prosecute amid ongoing violent conflict. Research will include direct observation of trial sessions and interviews with members of the court.Joanna Bronowicka, a junior social studies concentrator, will research the psychological and social consequences of the threat of deportation to the country of origin in a community of undocumented immigrants in Paris. She will explore the role of fear as a factor in mobilizing collective action and forging collective identity in comparison with the immigrant communities in Boston and London.Jay Costa, a junior concentrating in biological anthropology, will undertake senior thesis research examining the role of consequences and intentions in determinations of punishment. He will utilize behavioral psychology experiments to test an adaptive hypothesis of the privileging of consequences in individual judgments of punishment, and he will conduct a cross-cultural analysis of legal systems in order to explore whether a similar reliance on consequences persists at a systematic level.Henry Cowles, a senior environmental science and public policy (ESPP) concentrator, will expand a chapter of his senior thesis, which was on the origins of legislated wildlife protection in Britain during the 1860s, to address the explicitly ethical dimensions of that project. He will explore the ways in which ethical status was first granted to wild animals by addressing both the theoretical roots underpinning the early wildlife preservation movement and the social and cultural context in which that movement was born.Da Lin, a junior mathematics and economics concentrator, will undertake research on “Regulatory Cosmopolitanism,” for a European project titled “Pathways to Human Dignity.” She will examine the regulatory challenges presented by modern bioscience in the specific context of moral exclusion in patent regimes. In particular, she will explore ways to secure compliance with international regulations based on fundamental values while empowering national regulators who strive to uphold local standards.The Lester Kissel Grants are made possible by a gift from the late Lester Kissel, a graduate of Harvard Law School and longtime benefactor of Harvard’s ethics programs. For further details about the Kissel Grants, visit http://www.ethics.harvard.edu.last_img read more

Cardinal addesses senators

first_imgThe future of the immigration issue rests not in the hands of those in Washington D.C., but in the hands of today’s youth, a former archbishop said at Student Senate’s meeting Wednesday. Cardinal Roger Mahony, archbishop emeritus of Los Angeles, asked the senators how many of them knew an undocumented student who attended their high schools. Approximately half raised their hands. “We need you, you’re the ones who are going to get this done because you know personally people affected by our current policy which is very broken,” Mahony said. Mahony is currently advocating the Dream Act, a bill that would grant legal residency to undocumented students who attend college, graduate and serve in the military for a minimum of two years. “This act looks at one segment of undocumented people and that’s young people who were brought here at the age of 16 or younger,” Mahony said. “They did not make the choice to come here. They were brought here by parents or relatives.” These young people often graduate from high school and college, Mahony said, but have no where to go from there. “Once they finish college they are at the end of a dead end street because they have no Social Security number of legal status,” he said. “They can’t get a job that is equivalent to their education and training.” Mahony has spoken with many of these “dreamers,” including some attending Saint Mary’s College and Holy Cross College, and said he feels heartbroken by it. “They say to me, ‘What do I do when graduation comes?’ And I don’t have an answer,” he said. “I don’t have any next step to utilize what they have done and gone through to help them.” The Dream Act is a simple yet highly rewarding way to reform the current immigration laws, Mahony said. However, the federal government did not pass the Dream Act when it was before Congress. Mahony said anti-immigration feelings are running high due to the economic downturn. “In 2000, no one was discussing immigration because unemployment was at 3.9 percent and we needed all those people,” he said. “But every time there’s a recession there is always a new focus on immigration as a problem. In our country we’re really bent on blaming someone for our economic downturns, and we inevitably turn to immigration.” Mahony said this constantly changing attitude is similar to the United States erecting a fence with two signs, one that says “No trespassing” and another that says “Help wanted.” For example, the United States claims it does not want or need more workers, Mahony said. However, the undocumented immigrants often perform the jobs that many Americans refuse to do themselves. “If we moved all the standards of regular U.S. employees and the benefits and wages to agriculture, then a head of lettuce would probably cost $5,” Mahony said. “On one sense, we don’t want these people here. On the other hand we like our lettuce for 70 cents a head.” The last major immigration law was the Immigration Regulation and Control Act of 1986, Mahony said. This act gave a limited amnesty to undocumented immigrants who had been living in the U.S., working and paying their bills for the past five years. Mahony said many church leaders asked the federal government to include plans for the future in the act and the government promised to address that issue later, but never did. “Now we have 11 million undocumented living in the U.S. today, almost all of them living in blended families where some members are documented and some are not,” he said. “And we can’t move them out of the shadows.” The dreamers represent a very small portion of the undocumented, Mahony said, a portion whose talents and gifts are being wasted. In the meantime, he said the only advice he can offer these students is to remain in school despite the discouragement they often feel. “It is better to be educated than not educated,” he said. “As we move down the road and there’s an opportunity for you to become legal, and we’re going to get there, your having a college education is extremely valuable.”last_img read more

Tropics busy this week

first_imgEyes are on the tropics with the formation of Tropical Depression No. 4 and the possibility of a fifth tropical depression developing much closer to home. Forecasters say the broad low pressure system in the southeastern Gulf of Mexico could form into a tropical depression within a day or so. The Air Force Reconnaissance Aircraft is scheduled to check this area out on Tuesday, National Weather Service Meteorologist Roger Erickson said. “All computer models take the storm to southern Texas,” NWS Forecaster Sam Shamburger said. “As for the Golden Triangle, this will put an end to the really oppressive heat and bring an increase in moisture to the area starting Wednesday.” The NWS does not believe the storm will develop into a hurricane, but it could produce some rain showers for coastal sections of southeast Texas and southwest Louisiana on Wednesday. “We’ll have a slight increase in winds, southeast 10 to 15 mph on Wednesday and Thursday, but overall it will be slightly cooler and breezy,” he said. As of Monday afternoon, Tropical Depression No. 4 was in the Atlantic Ocean and is expected to approach the Puerto Rico area by Saturday. After that, it’s pure guess work, Shamburger said of the five-day prediction. While this past weekend’s temperatures were in the triple digits, they weren’t high enough to be in the record books. Temperatures in August 1962 were even hotter, Shamburger said. According to the records kept by the NWS, Aug. 10, 1962’s high was 107. There were a total of 10 days that year with 100 plus degree temperatures. The record high for the month of August took place on Aug. 31, 2000 with a high of 108.last_img read more

Comcast Business to bring multi-gigabit Ethernet services to five communities across Bennington County

first_imgComcast Cable,Comcast Business has announced that its full portfolio of Ethernet services is now available across five communities in Bennington County, Vermont. Capable of bandwidth up to 10 Gigabits-per-second (Gbps), these services are specifically designed for businesses, schools, hospitals and other organizations requiring more bandwidth, looking to network multiple locations together, or planning to connect their offices to a third-party data center.With this expansion, the communities of North Bennington, Old Bennington, Pownal, Shaftsbury and Woodford can now take advantage of four different types of Comcast Business Ethernet(link is external) services, including:-       Ethernet Private Line – point-to-point connectivity between two customer sites for bandwidth-intensive applications.-       Ethernet Virtual Private Line – a point-to-multipoint connection that allows customers to tailor bandwidth, performance characteristics and cost to meet the needs of their applications.-       Ethernet Network Service – multipoint-to-multipoint connectivity to connect organizations with high-bandwidth requirements and multiple locations across Comcast’s network.-       Ethernet Dedicated Internet – continuous, high-bandwidth connectivity between customers’ LANs and the public Internet.“Whether it’s a hospital transferring large radiology files, a police department looking to monitor surveillance video feeds in real-time, or a library needing more Wi-Fi capacity, bandwidth is increasingly becoming the engine driving all businesses,” said Paul Savas, vice president of Comcast Business in Vermont. “Our fiber expansion in these five communities is the latest example of the significant investments we’ve made to increase the availability of our Ethernet services to help foster economic development and drive competition, innovation and value for our customers in the Green Mountain State.”All of Comcast’s Ethernet services are delivered over an advanced network that spans 140,000 miles across 39 states and the District of Columbia. Serving 20 of the top 25 U.S. markets, Comcast’s network features a 100 Gbps backbone and expanded local footprint through Ethernet over HFC. Bandwidth is available up to 10 Gbps and can be scaled in increments and offered in three different classes of service, backed by strict service level agreements and monitored 24x7x365 from Comcast’s dedicated Network Operations Centers. Comcast was the first service provider in the world to offer Metro Ethernet Forum CE 2.0 certified Ethernet services and was also the first service provider to achieve all three of the previous CE 1.0 certifications (MEF 9, 14 and 18).Comcast Business recently received four Metro Ethernet Forum (MEF) Ethernet Excellence Awards(link is external), including the prestigious Best Service of the Year for North America. In addition, Comcast Business moved up two spots to the number six position and is now the second largest cable MSO in terms of Ethernet services in the Mid-Year 2014 U.S. Carrier Ethernet LEADERBOARD(link is external) from Vertical Systems Group. Source: BENNINGTON, V.T. – December 2, 2014 – Comcast Corporation. Comcast Corporation (Nasdaq: CMCSA, CMCSK) is a global media and technology company with two primary businesses, Comcast Cable and NBCUniversal. Comcast Cable is the nation’s largest video, high-speed Internet and phone provider to residential customers under the XFINITY brand and also provides these services to businesses. NBCUniversal operates news, entertainment and sports cable networks, the NBC and Telemundo broadcast networks, television production operations, television station groups, Universal Pictures and Universal Parks and Resorts. Visit www.comcastcorporation.com(link is external) for more information.Comcast Cable is the nation’s largest video, high-speed Internet and phone provider to residential customers under the XFINITY brand and also provides these services to businesses.  Comcast has invested in technology to build an advanced network that delivers among the fastest broadband speeds, and brings customers personalized video, communications and home management offerings.  Comcast Corporation (Nasdaq: CMCSA, CMCSK) is a global media and technology company.  Visit www.comcastcorporation.com(link is external) for more information.last_img read more

Human Race adds title to Festival of Sport, Cornwall

first_img Related Following the merger of Human Race and Participate Sport under the Human Race brand name, ‘the UK’s largest mass participation events company’, has added its title to the Festival of Sport, which launches this summer on 14-16 September. The former Participate Sport-run event event will now be named the Human Race Festival of Sport.The newly merged Human Race has a joint portfolio that includes some of the most prestigious mass participation events in the UK including the Toshiba Windsor Triathlon, Cycletta, Wiggle Dragon Ride, Etape Cymru, the Speedo Open Water swimming series, the off-road series, a partnership with the British 10K Run powered by Nike+, and the addition of the inaugural Human Race Festival of Sport.Taking place across the weekend of 14-16 September, the UK’s first Human Race Festival of Sport Cornwall is a new annual three day festival open to all, held in Mount’s Bay in West Cornwall. Competitors of all abilities will be welcome to the South West of England to participate in this new destination event, which will consist of a high-octane combination of triathlon, sportive cycling, open water swimming and a beach run as well as live music, beach sports and much more festival fun.The varied multisport events are situated over some of the most entrancing coastal landscape of the St Aubyn Estates and against the stunning scenery around St Michael’s Mount in Mount’s Bay, Marazion.Wings for Life is the official charity partner and competitors will be encouraged to fundraise for ground breaking spinal cord injury research. The charity will be providing training tips and is bringing along some of its well-known supporters from the world of sport.Nick Rusling, CEO of Human Race, said “This is an incredibly exciting time to be involved in Human Race and a title partnership with our new and equally exciting event, the Human Race Festival of Sport, was the perfect marriage to celebrate this period in our history. We believe the combination of this stunning venue, market leading sport set-up and the additional fun festival elements will mean Human Race Festival of Sport will truly be a special event in the UK’s sporting calendar for years to come.”Nikki WIilson, Head of Wings for Life UK, said “Wings for Life are thrilled to see the energy that Human Race are putting in to the first ever Human Race Festival of Sport Cornwall. We hope to attract as many people as possible to our Wings for Life team and encourage those signing up to raise funds for research. Spinal cord injury happens in a moment, but the impact lasts a lifetime. There is currently no medical treatment available to repair the injured spinal cord. Through our vital research, Wings for Life provide hope to the thousands of people affected by spinal cord injury around the globe.Alongside the main sporting activities, the Festival of Sport will deliver entertainment for both participants and visitors alike. Highlights will include live music and entertainment (with headline music and comedy acts to be announced), locally sourced food by Jamie Oliver Fabulous Feasts, a beer tent and bar by Cornwall’s award-winning independent family brewers, St Austell Brewery, a Sporting Expo and athlete seminars.In addition, there will be sporting activity of a more relaxed nature with touch rugby, gig rowing, beach volleyball, paddleboarding and blokarting all on offer. As with all good festivals, camping and showers will be a big feature and shall be set up no further than 100m away from the main site.Human Race lays claim to being the UK’s largest and most diverse mass participation events company – owning and delivering over 50 events in triathlon, cycling, running, duathlon and open water swimming for over 70,000 participants of all abilities and ages each year. The prestigious portfolio of events includes 11 triathlons, 9 cycling events, 10 running events, 7 open water swims, 6 kid’s events and one Festival of Sport.www.festivalofsport.net www.humanrace.co.uk www.wingsforlife.comlast_img read more

CRP testing shown to cut antibiotic use in COPD

first_imgThe results of a multisite, randomized controlled trial show that C-reactive protein (CRP) point-of-care testing resulted in decreased antibiotic prescribing for patients who have acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with no evidence of harm.The authors of the study say the findings, published today in the New England Journal of Medicine, suggest that CRP testing, which measures the level of a protein produced by the liver in response to inflammation, can help clinicians avoid unnecessary antibiotic prescribing for a condition that is frequently treated with antibiotics, despite evidence that they aren’t always needed.”The evidence from our trial suggests that CRP-guided antibiotic prescribing for COPD exacerbations in primary care clinics may reduce patient-reported use of antibiotics and the prescribing of antibiotics by clinicians,” the authors write.Clinical criteria not enough to rule out antibioticsFor the trial, a team led by investigators from the University of Oxford and Cardiff University recruited patients over the age of 40 from 86 general medical practices in England and Wales who consulted a clinician for sudden worsening of symptoms of COPD—a group of lung conditions that cause breathing difficulties.Acute exacerbations of COPD are marked primarily by three symptoms: extreme shortness of breath, a large increase in sputum production, and a change in sputum appearance. The condition can be triggered by viral or bacterial infections, but also by environmental pollutants or other irritants.Antibiotic prescribing for acute exacerbations of COPD is generally based on patients having at least two of the three main clinical symptoms, but these symptoms can be subjective and aren’t considered accurate enough to determine which patients can be treated safely without antibiotics. The investigators wanted to see whether CRP point-of-care testing could help clinicians with that decision.The patients were randomly assigned 1:1 to receive either usual care or usual care guided by CRP point-of-care testing. Guidelines for interpretation of CRP test results suggest that antibiotics are unlikely to be beneficial for patients with a CRP level of lower than 20 milligrams per liter (mg/L), may be beneficial for those with a CRP level of 20 to 40 mg/L, and are likely to be beneficial for those with a CRP level higher than 40 mg/L.The two primary outcomes in the study were patient-reported antibiotic use within 4 weeks after randomization and COPD-related health status at 2 weeks after randomization, as measured by patient responses to the Clinical COPD Questionnaire, a 10-item scale with scores ranging from 0 (very good COPD status) to 6 (very poor COPD status). The investigators also reviewed data from electronic medical records to determine antibiotic prescribing during the initial consultation and over the first 4 weeks of follow-up.A total of 649 patients underwent randomization, with 325 in the CRP-guided group and 324 in the usual-care group. Data obtained from 537 patients showed that fewer patients in the CRP-guided group reported antibiotic use than in the usual-care group (57% vs 77.4%; adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 0.31; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.20 to 0.47). The adjusted mean difference on the Clinical COPD Questionnaire at 2 weeks was – 0.19 points (two-sided 90% CI, – 0.33 to – 0.55) in favor of the CRP-guided group. That finding, the authors explain, indicates that reduced antibiotic use in the CRP-guided group did not compromise disease-specific quality of life.Review of the antibiotic prescribing decisions made by clinicians showed that a lower percentage of patients in the CRP-guided group than in the usual-care group received an antibiotic prescription at the initial consultation (47.7% vs 69.7%; aOR, 0.31; 95% CI, 0.21 to 0.45) and during the first 4 weeks of consultation (59.1% vs 79.7%; aOR, 0.30; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.46). A total of 158 antibiotic prescriptions were issued to patients in the CRP-guided group, and 234 were issued to those in the usual-care group.Analysis of secondary outcomes—including the prevalence of potentially pathogenic organisms in sputum, healthcare use, COPD-related health status, and general health status at 6 months—found no significant differences between the two groups. Two patients in the usual-care group died within 4 weeks of randomization, but the causes were considered to be unrelated to the trial.’Compelling’ evidenceIn an editorial that accompanies the study, Allan Brett, MD, and Majdi Al-Hasan, MBBS, of the University of South Carolina School of Medicine, say the results of the trial are “compelling enough to support CRP testing as an adjunctive measure to guide antibiotic use in patients with acute exacerbations of COPD.”They note, however, that the findings only suggest a way to reduce antibiotic prescribing without compromising clinical outcomes, but they don’t establish which patients truly benefit from antibiotics, or which antibiotics are most appropriate for treating acute exacerbations of COPD.”Additional clinical trials will be necessary to address these uncertainties,” they write.See also:Jul 11 N Engl J Med abstractJul 11 N Engl J Med editoriallast_img read more

Jason Bruce Named VP Of Business Development For Holley

first_imgDeMoulpied has a Bachelor of Science degree in Engineering Management from the United States Air Force Academy and a Master of Business Administration degree from the University of Dayton in Marketing and International Business. He served six years with the USAF overseeing the development of technology used on fighter aircraft and the E-3 Surveillance aircraft, finishing his career honorably as Captain. DeMoulpied comes to LSI from the Private Client Services practice of Ernst & Young where he managed strategy & operations improvement engagements for privately held client businesses. Some of his prior roles include VP of strategic development, director of strategic initiatives, and Lean Six Sigma Master Black Belt at OptumHealth, UnitedHealth Group’s health services business, as well as Lean Six Sigma Black Belt at General Electric, where he applied operations improvement principles to customer service, supply chain and product development. A successful entrepreneur, deMoulpied is also the founder of PrestoFresh, a Cleveland-based e-commerce food/grocery business.   AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement,Lubrication Specialties Inc. (LSI), manufacturer of Hot Shot’s Secret brand of performance additives and oils, recently announced the expansion of senior leadership. Steve deMoulpied joins LSI as the company’s chief operating officer (COO). AdvertisementClick Here to Read MoreAdvertisement LSI President Brett Tennar says, “Steve’s success in developing operational strategies that improves the bottom line, builds teamwork, reduces waste and ensures quality product development and distribution checks many of the boxes of what we were looking for in a COO. This, coupled with his career in the Air Force working with highly technical systems and his in-depth understanding of Lean Six Sigma and Business Process Management sealed our offer. As our tagline states, our products are Powered by Science. This data driven approach is one reason why our company has grown exponentially as we employ the most advanced technology to product development. I am confident that Steve is the right person to drive operational strategy for our diverse and growing brands.” Advertisement BOWLING GREEN, Ky. – Holley Performance Products has announced that Jason Bruce has rejoined the company as vice president of business development. Bruce is an industry veteran, holding sales and marketing management positions with aFe Power, Street Scene Equipment, Holley and Hooker Headers. In this new role, Bruce will be responsible for developing and coordinating new business projects across the Holley family of brands including: Holley, Hooker Headers, Flowtech Exhaust, NOS Nitrous Oxide Systems, Earl’s Plumbing, Demon Fuel Systems and Weiand intakes and superchargers. center_img With more than 20 years of experience across multiple industries and functional areas, deMoulpied has particular expertise in organizations with complex technical products. Combined, his prior positions have required a spectrum of skills in corporate strategy, operations improvement, product quality, and revenue cycle management. He has an impressive history of utilizing data driven problem solving (Lean Six Sigma) and project management (PMP and CSM) to achieve strategic goals surrounding customer satisfaction, operational efficiency and improved profit.  “We are excited to have Jason return to Holley,” said Holley President and CEO Tom Tomlinson. “He brings broad industry and product knowledge to Holley and will help us attain our strategic growth plans by launching compelling new products and expanding our current marketplaces. Jason is a proven team player, a guy who moves projects forward and a great addition to our leadership team here at Holley. Jason’s initial focus will be the revitalization of our Hooker and Flowtech brands.” “I grew up in Southern California around all of the Holley brands and in fact, started my career at Hooker Headers. I am very excited to be back at Holley and to be part of the revitalization that is taking place.  Holley has the best brands and great team members. I am honored to be a part of it,” Bruce added.last_img read more

Keep it in the family

first_imgA father and son team of solicitor advocates is poised to take on the Ministry of Defence (MoD) this week. John (the father) and William (the son) Mackenzie represent Lance Bombardier Kerry Fletcher, who was awarded over £170,000 damages by Leeds Employment Tribunal last autumn for sex and sexual-orientation discrimination while she was serving with the Royal Artillery. The tribunal found that Fletcher, who is gay, had been subjected to a campaign of victimisation. The MoD is appealing the awards for exemplary and aggravated damages, but not for loss of earnings or injury to feelings. Mackenzie senior was called to the bar in 1971, but requalified as a solicitor in 1979 and gained higher rights in 1995. His son qualified in 2006 after completing his training contract with his dad’s Henley-on-Thames firm, Mackenzie. He is now with St Albans firm McKeowns and got his higher rights last September. Of working with dad, he says: ‘We have different takes on things, but a good working relationship – and he always gets good work.’last_img read more

Michael Clausecker

first_imgMichael Clausecker, who became Chairman of Bombardier Transportation’s German business in March, has been elected to succeed Dr Klaus Baur as President of industry association VDB.last_img

2016 Olympic silver medalist Eunice Kirwa banned for doping

first_imgFILE PHOTO: 2016 Rio Olympics – Athletics – Women’s Marathon – Sambodromo – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – 14/08/2016. Bahrain’s Eunice Jepkirui Kirwa celebrates after finishing second at the Women’s Marathon during the athletics event at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games at Sambodromo in Rio de Janeiro on August 14, 2016. REUTERS/Jonannes Eisele/Pool FOR EDITORIAL USE ONLY. NOT FOR SALE FOR MARKETING OR ADVERTISING CAMPAIGNS/File Photo FILE PHOTO: 2016 Rio Olympics – Athletics – Women’s Marathon – Sambodromo – Rio de Janeiro, Brazil – 14/08/2016. Bahrain’s Eunice Jepkirui Kirwa celebrates after finishing second at the Women’s Marathon during the athletics event at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games at Sambodromo in Rio de Janeiro on August 14, 2016. REUTERS/Jonannes Eisele/PoolThe Athletics Integrity Unit on Monday announced that Kenyan-born Bahraini runner Eunice Jepkirui Kirwa had been banned for four years after she tested positive for the prohibited substance Erythropoietin (EPO).The AIU says Kirwa, a silver medalist at the Rio 2016 Olympic Games in the women’s marathon, did not have a Therapeutic Use Exemption (TUE) permitting the use of EPO.35-year-old Kirwa’s ban begins from May 7, 2019 and all her results since April 1, 2019 have been disqualified. She is consequently required to forfeit any titles, awards, medals, points and prize and appearance money.The AIU says Kirwa underwent an out-of-competition doping control in Kapsabet, Kenya on April 1 2019. Her sample showed positive results for EPO resulting in a provisional suspension pending resolution of her case.The AIU says Kirwa stated that she did not dope intentionally and could only assume that the EPO entered her body through contamination during a caudal epidural injection she received in late March. Kirwa did not request analysis of her B Sample.EPO is a peptide hormone that is produced naturally by the human body. EPO is released from the kidneys and acts on the bone marrow to stimulate red blood cell production. An increase in red blood cells improves the amount of oxygen that the blood can carry to the body’s muscles.EPO was banned as a performance enhancing substance in the early 1990s.The World Anti-Doping Agency says the misuse of EPO can lead to serious health risks for athletes who use it simply to gain a competitive edge.Last week, Kenyan long-distance runner and 2016 Singapore Marathon champion Felix Kirwa was banned for nine months after testing positive for a banned substance, Strychnine.Related Kenyan marathoner Felix Kirwa banned for 9 months for doping Kenya could be banned from Rio games over doping allegationscenter_img Ethiopian Athletes address doping allegationslast_img read more